Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalework objects, but in recent centuries using vitreous enamels, and also inlays of cut gemstones, glass, and even linen. and other cloth materials, has become common place, especially in jewelry beads.
Czech Glass Crystals or perhaps better known as Bohemian glass, or Bohemia crystal, is a decorative glass produced in regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now in the current state of the Czech Republic, since the 13th century. Oldest archaeology excavations of glass-making sites date to around 1250 and are located in the Lusatian Mountains of Northern Bohemia. Both Novy Bor and Kamenicky Senov have their own Glass Museums with many items dating since around 1600. These locations were especially outstanding in its manufacture of glass in high Baroque style from 1685 to 1750. In the 17th century, gem cutters in Prague, adapted to glass the technique of gem engraving with copper and bronze wheels. In the second half of the 19th century, Bohemia looked to the export trade and mass-produced colored glass for shipment all over the world. Today the Bohemian Glassworks Company is the producer of fine Czech crystals, Bohemian glass and Swarovski crystals. The latest project has been the firing of glass nail files.
Lapis Lazuli is a rock, not a mineral: whereas a mineral has only one constituent, Lapis Lazuli is formed from more than one mineral. The main component of lapis lazuli is Lazurite, and a feldspathoid silicate mineral. Most Lapis Lazuli also contains Calcite (white), Sodalite (blue), and Pyrite (metallic yellow). There can also be other possible constituents and trace amounts of other minerals. Lapis lazuli usually occurs in crystalline marble as a result of contact metamorphism. The finest color is intense blue, lightly dusted with small flecks of golden Pyrite. Stones with no white Calcite veins and only small Pyrite inclusions are more prized. Patches of Pyrite are an important help in identifying the stone as genuine and do not detract from its value. Often, inferior Lapis is dyed to improve its color, producing a very dark blue color with a noticeable grey cast which may also appear as a milky shade. Lapis takes an excellent polish and can be made into jewelry, carvings, boxes, mosaics, ornaments, and vases.
Cord beads and glass Peafrls are also used in this set.