In the old Testament in Exodus, Chapter 28, we find:
a Sardius, a Topaz, a Carbuncle, an Emerald, a Sapphire, a Diamond, a Ligure, an Agate, an Amethyst, a Beryl, an Onyx, and a Jasper.
Then in the New Testament, in Revelations are listed:
a Jasper, a Sapphire, a Chalcedony, an Emerald, a Sardonyx, a Sardius, a Chrysolite, a Beryl, a Topaz, a Chrysoprase, a Jacinth and an Amethyst.
In both cases, the number of Gemstones listed is 12. And then within the Gosples we have the 12 gemstones associated with of the Apostles;
Peter: Jasper, Andrew: Garnet, James and John: Emerald, Philip: Carnelian, Bartholomew: Chrysolite, Thomas: Beryl, Matthew: Topaz, James: Sardonyx, Thaddeus: Chrysoprase, Simeon: Jacinth, Matthew: Amethyst, Paul: Sapphire and Judas was one of the original 12 Apostle's, however no gemstone is known to be associated with his name.
So if we look closely, in each case the following are named:
A Jasper, a Topaz, an Emerald, a Beryl, an Amethyst, a Sapphire and an Onyx or Sardonyx. We also have the gemstone called a Sardius, which today is referred to as a Carnelian, also the gemstone called Carbuncle, which we know today as a red Garnet, and then the gemstone Jacinth, or as we call it today, the red Zircon. That leaves only the Diamond and Ligure listed in Exodus, but they are replaced with Chrysolite and Chrysoprase in The Gosples and Revelations. Ligure is possibly thought to relate or refer to Amber. And then in Revelations, a new gemstone is named – Chalcedony. So in totality, we have 15 unique gemstones mentioned throughout the Bible, but only 12 are ever listed together in any single reference.